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ALTEX: Issue 2/09: News

For breaking news, please see the Altweb main page.

  1. CH: In vitro veritas in Geneva, Switzerland
  2. CH: In vitro selection of antibodies: a new gold standard
  3. EU: Acceptance of a new in vitro skin irritation method
  4. EU: Ban on acute toxicity tests on animals for cosmetics ingredients
  5. EU: EDQM accepts alternative to rabbit pyrogen test
  6. GER: Doctors against animal experimentation see opportunities in the revision of 86/609
  7. GER: Ursula M. Haendel Prize 2009 goes to Hannover 
  8. GER/USA: Standardisation adulterates animal experiments
  9. NI: Scientists confirm crab’s memory of pain
  10. OECD: Experts approve new test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity
  11. UK: NC3Rs event marks 50th anniversary of the 3Rs
  12. UK: Becoming conscious about fish conscience
  13. USA: New EPA strategic plan for evaluating the toxicity of chemicals
  14. GER: Gotthard M. Teutsch deceased
  15. USA/CAN/JAP/EU: Countries unite to reduce animal use
  16. USA: Inauguration of the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Chair at John Hopkins University
  17. USA: The Baltimore ALTEX Office

CH: In vitro veritas in Geneva, Switzerland

Pierre Cosson, the new Doerenkamp-Naef-Zbinden Professor at the University of Geneva held his inauguration lecture entitled “In vitro veritas: Un système im- munitaire dans un tube à essai” on his test tube research, on March 5, 2009.

The talk, given at the University of Geneva Medical Centre, auditorium C150, started at 12.30 pm. But the first official sentence the dean of the faculty medicine, Prof. Jean-louis Carpentier, said was: “We must move!” the auditorium was too small relative to the great interest in the inauguration of Pierre Cosson. After moving to a bigger auditorium about 250 guests listened to the introductory speeches of the dean and Egon Naef, president of the Egon-Naef Foundation, who described the inception of the chair and introduced all the sponsors (and also those who gave nothing).

In his lecture, Pierre Cosson gave insight into his research on a soil amoeba. In the study of bacterial infectious diseases, it is essential to test a bacterium’s capability to cause a disease. Usually, a host is infected, typically a mouse, and one allows the disease to progress. Cosson is working on a new system in which mice are replaced by a non-mammalian host, Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil amoeba. Very similar results to those in mammalian hosts are obtained in this system. Cosson now aims to extend these results to validate this system as an alternative to mammalian models.

His laboratory also studies ways to produce disease-fighting antibodies in a test tube instead of by using animals. These are essential research tools in many research laboratories, but the techniques are more complex. Developing these techniques in Geneva would greatly benefit researchers at the university and at institutions outside Geneva and Switzerland. The Doerenkamp-Zbinden chairs in Baltimore, Konstanz and Utrecht want to take over this technique as soon as possible. Before coming to the University of Geneva, Cosson worked at the Roche Institute of Immunology in Basel. So, his extensive expertise in immunology will serve him well in this quest for a novel system to produce antibodies in vitro in- stead of in rabbits. On the date of the inauguration ceremony, the president of the Doerenkamp-Zbinden foundation, Franz P. Gruber, was pleased to inform Pierre Cosson that the foundation board had decided to sponsor this antibody project with additional funding. See also news about this project.

CH: In vitro selection of antibodies: a new gold standard

Antibodies are the most commonly used reagent to detect a given protein in a complex mixture. They are used in almost every biology laboratories around the world to detect the presence of a protein, to localize it in a cell or in a tissue, or to purify it. Specific antibodies are obtained by immunizing rabbits or mice, and this leads to the use of thousands of animals every year.

A promising alternative has been developed over the last decades often referred to as recombinant antibodies or phage display technology. Using advanced molecular biology techniques, specific antibodies can be selected in vitro, then produced in unlimited amounts in bacteria. No animal is required at any step of the procedure. This technique has many practical advantages compared to the use of animals: the antibodies are produced faster (a few weeks), in better-controlled conditions, at a low cost, and these reagents are much easier to handle than classical antibodies. This is a clear case where ethical considerations (sparing the live of animals) can be reconciled with the need to advance biomedical knowledge.

Why then hasn’t this technology completely replaced the use of animal immunization? Probably the main reason is that this technique requires a real know-how, as well as a few specific procedures. Individual laboratories, requesting a few new antibodies every year, cannot spend a significant part of their resources to learn this new approach. The consequence is that only a few laboratories in the world actually make use of this technique, while most still make use of animals.

In Geneva, the Doerenkamp-Naef-Zbinden Chair is trying to change this. The DNZ Chair is starting a new project to develop this technology at the Faculty of Medicine, and make it accessible to all interested researchers in our University. Our hope is that within a few years, this technique will become the new gold standard for the production of antibodies, and will largely replace the use of animals, especially rabbits. If this program is a success, it may then be duplicated in other countries. This project is developed with the support of the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation.

Prof. Dr. Pierre Cosson
Doerenkamp-Naef-Zbinden Chair
Faculty of Medicine University of Geneva Switzerland

EU: Acceptance of a new in vitro skin irritation method

Dear reader,

Due to its graphical complexity this news is to be found in a pdf format at the following link: 

EU: Acceptance of a new in vitro skin irritation method

EU: Ban on acute toxicity tests on animals for cosmetics ingredients

The ban on seven toxicity tests for cosmetics ingredients came into force on the 11th of March 2009. This second dead- line of the 7th amendment to the European Union’s Cosmetics Directive outlaws the use of any ingredients that have been tested for acute toxicity in animals after this cut-off date in any beauty products or toiletries as well as the import of cosmetics containing ingredients that were tested for acute toxicity in animals anywhere in the world into the EU.

Two thousand cosmetics manufacturers in the European Union sell about 5 billion items per year with a total value around € 80 billion. Although this sector has only reported using relatively few animals in recent years, about 0.05% of the total number used in regulatory testing in 2005, it has been able to buy in new ingredients previously tested in animals by chemicals manufacturers until the ban came into force.

The tests falling under the ban are for skin irritancy, sensitivity to light, corrosivity, absorption through the skin, genetic toxicity, eye irritancy and acute toxicity. Although alternative assays have only been fully validated by the European Center for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development for four of these seven tests to date, the validation of alternatives for the three remaining assays is foreseen in the next couple of years.

A further deadline is currently set for the 11th of March 2013, when all long- term toxicity tests on animals for cosmetics ingredients will also be banned, making the development of new cosmetics in Europe animal-free. However, as progress in replacing these tests is much slower, owing to the difficulties of simulating these long-term processes in vitro, this deadline may still be renegotiated. For an in depth discussion, see “Food for thought…on alternative methods for cosmetics safety testing,” ALTEX 25, 3/08, 147-162. (sva)

EU: EDQM accepts alternative to rabbit pyrogen test

The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Health Care (EDQM, Council of Europe) is a European organisation involved in the harmonisation and co-ordination of standardisation, regulation and quality control of medicines, blood transfusion, organ transplantation, pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical care. The EDQM reports that the European Pharmacopoeia Commission has adopted a new general chapter on monocyte activation tests: the chapter provides in vitro alternatives to the rabbit pyrogen test and will hopefully contribute to the reduction of use of laboratory animals, see press release at:

A comment by the Paul-Ehrlich Institute in Langen, Germany, reads, “Finally, after more than 10 years of development, validation, optimisation, consultation, persuasion (and some frustration in between) the Monograph 2.6.30. “Monocyte-Activation test” (formerly known as “alternative pyrogen test”) was adopted by the European Pharmacopeia Commission during the 133rd session in March 2009. The Monograph will be implemented into the European Pharmacopeia in 2010. The Monograph describes three different general approaches (quantitative test, limit test, batch-to batch comparison) for Monocyte Activation tests. The unresting efforts of many people were crowned with success. Besides the enormous input of scientific colleagues and their staff (including our own group) the PEI has to highlight the extraordinary support by the German Pharmacopoeia Commission.

ALTEX is proud that it was the first journal to publish an article on one of these new tests in the issue 2/1995: Thomas Hartung and Albrecht Wendel: Detection of pyrogens using human whole blood, ALTEX 12, 70-75. But, in the opinion of ALTEX, 14 years between publishng a new test principle and implementing it in the European Pharmacopoeia is far too long and has resulted in thousands of rabbits being used unnecessarily. (fpg)

GER: Doctors against animal experimentation see opportunities in the revision of 86/609

The association Doctors Against Animal experiments Germany demands a clear commitment to animal-free research and a renunciation of animal experiments on occasion of the current polls on the EU and state level on the content of the EU directive on animal experiments*. “Politics now has its opportunity to do its duty and embark on consequently ethical and scientifically sound pathways that do not cause suffering to animals” explains biologist Silke Bitz, scientific officer of the association.

In their statement, the Doctors Against Animal experiments Germany ask of politics that the content of proposals for animal experiments is made available to the public and that quality control measures are introduced, which evaluate all projects involving animal experiments retrospectively. Further, the association demands that animal-free research be given the highest priority. Experiments on primates should be banned without exception. “The revision of the directive should be viewed as a chance to set a clear course towards abandoning the socio-politically unacceptable animal experiment in a timely manner,” continues Bitz.

Only a few days ago, the upper house of German parliament (Bundesrat) made a recommendation to the German federal government to considerably weaken the Commission’s draft to the detriment of animal protection. The Doctors’ association calls upon the German Minister for Agriculture Ilse Aigner not to bow to the lobby that benefit from animal experiments and to stand against any relaxation of the draft that would cement unethical and unscientific methods.

Currently, the European Parliament and the European Council of Ministers, in which Minister Aigner represents the German government, are voting on the Commission’s draft for the revision of the directive. In the next days, the Committees on environment and on Industry of the European Parliament will convey their positions to the Committee on Agriculture, which is responsible for drafting the European Parliament’s statement on the Commission’s draft. The vote of the Committee on environment on 18.02.09 was sobering according to the Doctors Against Animal experiments, as numerous suggestions for improvements for the animals did not find a majority. On 31.03.09 the Committee on Agriculture will vote on the positions of both committees, and the vote in the plenum will take place on 04.05.09.

In 2005 more than 12 million animals were used in experiments in the EU; at the last count in 2007, more than 2.6 million animals were used in Germany alone.

* Directive 86/609/EWG of the 24th of November 1986 on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes

Historische Chance für eine
translated by SvA

GER: Ursula M. Haendel Prize 2009 goes to Hannover

The haematologist, Professor Christopher Baum, and his coworkers, Dr. Ute Modlich and Sabine Knöß, received the Ursula M. Haendel Animal Protection Prize 2009. The prize was awarded to the research team from the Hannover Medical School (MHH) for a novel test system for the development of gene therapies, which can reduce the number of necessary animal experiments considerably. The Ursula M. Haendel Animal Protection Prize is awarded by the German Research Council (DFG) to scientists who strive for the improvement of animal protection in science in an exemplary and enduring manner. The prize was awarded for the third time since its inception in 2004 and is endowed with 50,000 euro.

GER/USA: Standardisation adulterates animal experiments

Under the title “Environmental standardization: cure or cause of poor reproducibility in animal experiments?” S. Helene Richter, Joseph P. Garner and Hanno Würbel published in Naturemethods a very intersting paper in which they come to the finding that environmental standardisation is a cause of, rather than a cure for, poor reproducibility of experimental outcomes. Environmental standardisation can contribute to spurious and conflicting findings in the literature and unnecessary animal use. They demand that more research should be invested into practicable and effective ways of systematic environmental heterogenisation to attenuate these scientific, economic and ethical costs.

Correspondence should be addressed to H. Wuerbel, Animal Welfare and ethology, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Germany (hanno.wuerbel@vetmed.

April 2009, p257ff

NI: Scientists confirm crab's memory of pain

New research published by a Queen’s University Belfast academic shows that crabs not only suffer pain, but that they also retain a memory of it. The study, which looked at the reactions of hermit crabs to small electric shocks, was carried out by Professor Bob Elwood and Mirjam Appel from the School of Biological Sciences at Queen’s and was published in the journal Animal Behaviour. Professor Elwood, who previously carried out a study showing that prawns feel pain, said his research highlighted the need to investigate how crustaceans are treated in the food industry.

Hermit crabs have no shell of their own, so they inhabit other structures, usually empty mollusc shells. Wires were attached to shells to deliver small shocks to the abdomen of some of the crabs within the shells. The only crabs that left their shells were those that had received shocks, indicating that the experience was unpleasant for them. This shows that central neuronal processing occurs rather than the response merely being a reflex.

The main aim of the experiment, however, was to deliver a shock just under the threshold that causes crabs to leave their shells to see what happened when a new shell was then offered. Crabs that had been shocked but had remained in their shell appeared to remember the experience of the shock, because they quickly moved towards the new shell, investigated it briefly, and were more likely to change to the new shell compared to those that had not been shocked.

Professor Elwood said that there has been a long debate about whether crustaceans, including crabs, prawns and lobsters, feel pain. This research demonstrates that it is not a simple reflex, but that crabs trade off their need for a quality shell with the need to avoid the harmful stimulus. Such trade-offs are seen in vertebrates, in which the response to pain is controlled with respect to other requirements. Humans, for example, may hold on to a hot plate that contains food, whereas they may drop an empty plate, showing that humans take differing motivational requirements into account when responding to pain. Trade-offs of this type have not been previously demonstrated in crustaceans.

The results are consistent with the idea of pain being experienced and remembered by these animals. According to Professor Elwood, in contrast to mammals, little protection is given to the millions of crustaceans that are processed in the fishing and food industries each day. It was added that more research is needed in this area, where a potentially very large problem is being ignored. With vertebrates one is asked to err on the side of caution, and this is certainly the approach that should also be taken with these crustaceans.

Queen’s University Belfast press
release from 27th March 2009

OECD: Experts approve new test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity

On April 9, 2009, the OECD environment, Health and Safety Directorate approved several important documents on acute inhalation toxicity testing, which will considerably reduce both experimental animal numbers and their suffering. The new tests follow the approach that was successfully established for acute oral toxicity testing and consist of the following documents:

1. OECD Guidance Document (GD) 39 on “acute inhalation toxicity testing”
2. a revised test Guideline (tG) 403 Acute Inhalation Toxicity
3. a new TG 436 Acute Inhalation Toxicity - Acute Toxic Class (ATC) Method the three documents were approved by the national coordinators of the OECD environment, Health and Safety Programme at their last meeting in March and will be available on the OeCD web- site shortly (

The USA, represented by the EPA, and Germany, represented by the BfR (Federal Institute for Risk Assessment), were the lead countries driving this important initiative, which was brought to a successful conclusion after several years of very intense discussions among international experts. John Whalan (US EPA) and Juergen Pauluhn (BayerSchering AG, Germany) were the main contributors, who helped to get the new testing strategy, which is outlined in the new OECD Guidance Document 39 on “acute inhalation toxicity testing” (see website), accepted.

Most importantly, no experimental validation studies had to be performed since a biostatistical performance assessment funded by the BfR under the chairmanship of Matthias Greiner (BfR) proved that the Acute Toxic Class (ATC) method, which uses a significantly lower number of animals, allows the correct classification of the acute inhalation toxicity of chemicals.

In contrast to the case of acute oral toxicity testing, the classical OECD TG 403 “Acute Inhalation toxicity” was not abandoned, since it still has to be performed for hazard assessment under a few well-defined circumstances, e.g. when a population is accidentally exposed to an unknown poisonous gas. However, TG 403 has been updated in many aspects.

The final approval of the new DG 39 and the 2 TGS will still have to undergo several formal procedures within the OECD approval process, which may be achieved by the fall of 2009. (hsp)

UK: NC3Rs event marks 50th anniversary of the 3Rs

The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) held an event sponsored by Lord Sainsbury, former Minister of State for Science and Innovation, at the House of Lords in Westminster, London, on the 25th of March 2009 as one of its activities to mark the 50th anniversary of the 3R’s. The latest 3Rs research was presented in the form of poster presentations by scientists from academia and industry to an invited audience of members of parliament, peers and other key stakeholders. Three prizes of £ 3,000 each were awarded for the best posters in the categories Replacement, Refinement and Reduction. These described the development of a 3D model of breast cancer, the use of dried blood spots for the generation of toxicokinetic data, and an approach to use fewer animals in an obesity research model, respectively. The event was publicised by a press release and an abstract booklet describing the presented work. (sva)

UK: Becoming conscious about fish conscience

In this age of aquaculture the question of fish welfare finds increasing limelight in both the public and political domains. During the race of global aquaculture industries, fish welfare needs have been left behind. However, in the last decade the welfare of fish has become a high-priority issue on political grounds. In 1997, the treaty of Amsterdam agreed that throughout the EU the concept of welfare is the same in fish as it is in mammals and birds and necessary protection should be applied. More recently, the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) announced its plan to harmonise standards throughout its 172 member countries.

Following a request from the European Commission the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) panel was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on welfare aspects of husbandry systems for farmed fish. The opinion tried to identify their capacity to experience pain, fear and distress, whilst taking into account expressions of sentience.

While for a long time it was believed that fish did not possess complex emotions, new research has highlighted dynamic social functions and environmental responses, whilst issues of fish stress and disease has been forced into the limelight due to the damaging repercussions they can have on the industry. “As for all animals it is impossible to find one single measurement or welfare indicator that will cover all possible husbandry systems, farmed species and situations,” says the AHAW Scientific Opinion. “A range of welfare indicators should be considered when welfare is being evaluated.”

Fish in a natural habitat display complex swimming, feeding, anti-predator and reproductive behaviours that are often lacking in fish farms. Fish farmers themselves have witnessed how prolonged exposure to stressors can lead to maladaptive effects or chronic stress. Chronic stress responses that can indicate poor welfare conditions include reduction in immune function, disease resistance, growth and reproduction and even result in death. Fin condition and parasite load are clear and comparable indications that are often associated with poor welfare.

However, indicators of condition do not necessarily show whether a fish is undergoing real feelings of pain, but while some scientists say that fish lack a biological capacity to experience the world in the same way that we do, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that biological responses are much more similar than previously believed. According to the AHAW Scientific Opinion, there is scientific evidence to support the assumption that some fish species have brain structures potentially capable of experiencing pain and fear.

In the context of welfare of farmed fish the physiological, biochemical and behavioural reactions of fish are considered to be part of the experience of pain, fear and distress – and whilst the extent to which feelings of pleasure exist in fish is unknown – the hormone oxytocin, associated with pleasure in humans and other mammals – occurs in fish.

It seems that we may never truly know how complex the emotional life of a fish may be – but the same may be said of terrestrial animals and even the people whom we feel the closest to.

Adopted and shortened by gk,
full article at the Fish Site,
Adam Anson, March 2009

USA: New EPA strategic plan for evaluating the toxicity of chemicals

The US Environmental Protection Agency posted the final version of its new “Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals” on March 25 at http://

The EPA’s overview of this document ( testing/index.htm) notes that “the traditional risk assessment approach relies heavily on data generated through the intentional dosing of experimental animals.” the EPA strategic plan describes a new approach which is based on “advances in molecular biology and computational sciences to transform toxicity testing and risk assessment practices.”

The first of three interrelated components in the strategic plan deals with “toxicity pathways identification and use of this information in screening and prioritization of chemicals for further testing.” The approach proposed is based on the EPA-commissioned NRC report “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and a Strategy” (2007) ( 

The other components in the EPA plan involve “the use of toxicity pathways information in risk assessment,” and “the institutional transition necessary to implement such practices across EPA.” the EPA claims the new approach to toxicity testing and risk assessment should significantly reduce animal testing. (hsp)

GER: Gotthard M. Teutsch deceased

Prof. Dr. Gotthard Teutsch passed away on Sunday, 20th  of April 2009, aged 90 years after a short, severe illness. For many years Teutsch wrote the Literature Report for ALTEX; he published important assays aiming to improve or sometimes simply soberly contemplating human-animal relationships. Teutsch also established the Archive for Ethics in Animal, Nature and Environmental Protection, which was originally housed in the state library of Baden in Karlsruhe and is now to be found at the Stiftung für das Tier im Recht in Zurich.

A detailed obituary will be included in the first issue of ALTEXethik to be published in autumn 2009. Sadly, Dr. Teutsch will not be able to read this issue himself - he had so looked forward to it.

We extend our heartfelt condolences to his widow.

Franz P. Gruber
for the Altex team

USA: Inauguration of the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Chair at Johns Hopkins University

Cheer for chair—some observations from the inauguration of Thomas Hartung as the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Chair for Evidence-based Toxicology

The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Johns Hopkins (named after Johns Hopkins, who left $7 million in his will 1873 – at the time, this was the largest philanthropic bequest in US history equivalent to $131 million in the year 2006) has graduate programs in medicine, public health, music, and international studies. Johns Hopkins is one of the top universities in the world – for example it ranked first of 20 top US academic institutions in total research & development spending for the 29th year in a row. And Johns Hopkins is known to entertain already for 28 years the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), which became under the leadership of its founder Prof. Alan Goldberg a key promoter for alternative methods in the US, best known for its website AltWeb (http://altweb. and the TestSmart workshops and conferences (last on developmental neurotoxicity in November 2008). It was not easy to find somebody to succeed Alan Goldberg, who turns 70 this fall: For more than four years, search committees looked for a candidate with a reputation and academic standing adequate for this prominent position.

Thomas Hartung fulfilled these criteria – a professor from the University of Konstanz, Germany, with more than 300 scientific papers and from 2002 to 2008 head of ECVAM, the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods. When asked what made him change to the US, his answer was quick: “The fantastic environment of Hopkins and the enthusiastic discussion on a paradigm shift in toxicology stirred by the vision report from the US National Academy of Sciences”. The Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation enabled this change by endowing a chair for evidence-based toxicology linked to CAAT. On the basis of this endowment Hopkins commits to maintain a chair with this research direction until the university ceases to exist.

On 12th of May 2009, we were able to witness the celebration of the inauguration, which demonstrated impressively, how much the university embraces this donation and this area of research. University president Ron Daniels and Dean Michael Klag left no doubt about their full support, expressing their appreciation for the past of CAAT and their expectations for seeing it further flourish in the future.

In an entertaining presentation, Thomas Hartung laid out some stations of his career, which led him to Baltimore. As a thought starter, he recalled when he synthesized aspirin as a student of biochemistry and medicine in Tuebingen, Germany. Seeing the result of his work, he wondered whether he would dare to swallow it. Most probably not, if he would rely on to todate’s toxicology, which has shown that the chemical is “harmful if swallowed”, a skin, eye and respiratory irritant, a co-carcinogen and embryotoxic in cat, dog, rat, mouse and monkey. Good that there was no toxicology in 1899 – the drug would hardly have made it to the market. In marked contrast, after one million billions of pills taken by men, annual production is close to 50 thousand tons and sales close to $ 800 million. Hartung then showed, how his mentor Albrecht Wendel, Tuebingen and Konstanz, guided him toward pharmacology and toxicology, citing former FDA president Arnold Lehmann “You too can become a toxicologist in two easy lessons, each ten years long.“ He continued showing how the years in ECVAM with the European Commission have shaped his view on toxicology and the need for new approaches. The close collaboration with Alan Goldberg and CAAT during these years enabled a smooth transition now. Among others Hartung and Goldberg published in 2005 an article in Scientific American (later translated into Arabian, Chinese, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portugese, Spanish and other) entitled “Protecting more than animals”. This describes well their joint approach, which stresses that humane science is the best science – to protect consumers and patients as well as animals.

Finally, Hartung explained again his concept to translate evidence-based Medicine to toxicology (see also his article in 2/09 issue of Altex). All together, an entertaining presentation, which set the scene for prospects in research, education and the “CAATalyst” role of the center. 

The Doerenkamp-Zbinden foundation is proud to have helped install at such prominent place a chair to support the paradigm shift in toxicology. The choice of the inaugural professor raises hopes as to the contribution to be expected.  By supporting the Transatlantic Think Tank of Toxicology (t4) – a collaboration of the toxicology oriented Doerenkamp-Zbinden chairs in Konstanz, Utrecht and Baltimore – the support continues to make a new approach in toxicology possible. The photographs from the inauguration give an impression of the event – a milestone on the long road to go. (fpg)

The Baltimore ALTEX Office

Besides Thomas Hartung, now the editor of ALTEX in the USA, two Baltimore staff members should be introduced to our readers.

Carol Howard has been a science writer for more than 20 years and has worked at CAAT for the past 9 of those years. She is responsible for content development for a wide range of CAAT publications, including Altweb, the Alternatives to Animal testing Website ( Carol holds a Master’s degree in biology and a Bachelor’s degree in psychology. She completed a one-year graduate program in science communication as well. She is author of the non-fiction book Dolphin Chronicles (Bantam Books, 1996). Her writing also has been published in National Geographic Books, Time Life Books, Psychology Today, Reader’s Digest, and various literary journals. A life-long love of animals and long-standing interest in science attracted Carol to CAAT and the field of alternatives. She is looking forward to working with ALTEX.

Michael Hughes has been a Communications Associate with CAAT since 2004, and has produced Web, video, and print content to further CAAT's mission of advancing humane science and promoting alternatives to animal testing. Over the past two decades he has worked in a variety of media, including Web, television,  and print, as a writer, editor, designer, video producer, and photographer. He specializes in social networking, blogging, technology, and new media, and has published feature articles as well as short fiction. He lives in Baltimore, Maryland, with his wife and two daughters.

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SOT Satellite Meeting: Updates on Activities Related to 21st Century Toxicology and Related Efforts: Invited Presentations and Open Mic
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2nd Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods
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