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Local Lymph Node Assay

Table of Contents

  1. Test Submission
    1. Cover Letter
    2. Submission
  2. Appendices
    1. Local Lymph Node Assay Bibliography
    2. List of Chemicals
      1. Chemicals Tested in Local Lymph Node Assay
      2. Discordant Results Between Local Lymph Node Assay and Guinea Pig or Human Test Methods
      3. Disintegrations Per Minute Data and Stimulation Indices for Discordant Results
    3. Key Local Lymph Node Assay Papers
    4. Sample Local Lymph Node Assay Protocol
    5. ICCVAM Local Lymph Node Assay Test Submission Guidelines

APPENDIX A

LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Ashby, J., Basketter, D.A., Paton, D., and I. Kimber (1995). Structure-activity relationships in skin senstitization using the murine local lymph node assay. Toxicology 103: 177-194.
  2. Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Kimber, I., Botham, P.A., Hilton, J., Miller, K., Robbins, M.C., Harrison, P.T.C., and S.J. Waite (1991). Interlaboratory evaluation of the local lymph node assay with 25 chemicals and comparison with guinea pig test data. Toxicol. Methods 1: 30-43.
  3. Basketter, D.A. and E.W. Scholes (1992). Comparison of the Local Lymph Node Assay with the guinea pig maximization test for the detection of a range of contact allergens. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 30: 65-69.
  4. Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Cumberbatch, M., Evans, C.D., and I. Kimber (1992). Sulphanilic acid: divergent results in the guinea pig maximization test and the local lymph node assay. Contact Derm. 27: 209-213.
  5. Basketter, D.A., Roberts, D.W., Cronin, M., and E.W. Scholes (1992). The value of the local lymph node assay in quantitative structure activity investigations. Contact Derm. 27: 137-142.
  6. Basketter, D.A., Selbie, E., Scholes, E.W., Lees, D., Kimber, I., and P.A. Botham (1993). Results with OECD recommended positive control sensitizers in the maximization, Buehler, and local lymph node assays. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 31: 63-67.
  7. Basketter, D.A., Roberts, D.W., Cronin, M.T.D., and E.W. Scholes (1993). The value of the local lymph node assay in the development of QSARs for skin sensitisation potential. In Trends in QSAR and Molecular Modelling 1992. Eds. C.G. Wermuth, ESCOM, pp. 580-583.
  8. Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., and I. Kimber (1994). The performance of the local lymph node assay with chemicals identified as contact allergens in the human maximization test. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 33: 1057-1059.
  9. Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Wahlkvist, H., and J. Montelius (1995). An evaluation of the suitability of benzocaine as a positive control skin sensitizer. Contact Derm. 33: 28-32.
  10. Basketter, D.A. and M. Chamberlain. (1995). The validation of skin sensitization assays. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 33: 1057-1059.
  11. Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Chamberlain, M., and M.D. Barratt (1995). An alternative strategy to the use of guinea pigs for the identification of skin sensitisation hazard. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 33: 1051-1056.
  12. Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Chamberlain, M., and M.D. Barratt (1996). Skin allergy-identifying the causitive chemicals: a strategy to replace animal tests. In Alternatives to Animal Testing. Eds. S.G. Lisansky, R. Macmillan, and J. Depuis. CPL Press, pp. 225-230.
  13. Basketter, D.A. and I. Kimber (1996). Olive oil: suitability for use as a vehicle in the local lymph node assay. Contact Derm. 35: 190-191.
  14. Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Fielding, I., Dearman, R.J., Hilton, and I. Kimber (1996). Dichloronitrobenzene: a reappraisal of its skin sensitization potential. Contact Derm. 34: 55-58.
  15. Basketter, D.A., Gerberick, G.F., Kimber, I., and S.E. Loveless (1996). The local lymph node assay: a viable alternative to currently accepted skin sensitization tests. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 34: 985-997.
  16. Basketter, D.A., Dearman, R.J., Hilton, J., and I. Kimber (1997). Dinitrohalobenzenes: evaluation of relative skin sensitization potential using the local lymph node assay. Contact Derm. 36: 97-100.
  17. Basketter, D.A., Gerberick, G.F., and I. Kimber. Strategies for identifying false positive responses in predictive skin sensitization tests. Fd. Chem. Toxic. accepted for publication.
  18. Basketter, D.A. (1998). Current trends in the assessment of contact sensitising potential. Toxicology, Submitted.
  19. Chamberlain, M. and D.A. Basketter (1996). The local Lymph node assay: status of validation. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 34: 999-1002.
  20. Cronin, M.T.D. and D.A. Basketter (1996). A QSAR evaluation of existing contact allergy database. In Trends in QSAR and Molecular Modelling 1992. Eds. C.G. Wermuth, ESCOM, pp. 297-298.
  21. Dearman, R.J., Hope, J.C., Hopkins, S.J., Debicki, R.J., and I. Kimber (1993). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by lymph node cells: an alternative endpoint for the murine local lymph node assay. Toxicol. Methods 3: 268-278.
  22. Dearman, R.J., Scholes, E.W., Ramdin, L.S.P., Basketter, D.A., and I. Kimber (1994). The local lymph node assay: an interlaboratory evaluation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by draining lymph node cells. J. Appl. Toxicol. 14: 287-291.
  23. Dearman, R.J., Hilton, J., Evans, P., Harvey, P., Basketter, D.A., and I. Kimber (1998). Temporal stability of local lymph node assay response to hexyl cinnamic aldehyde. Submitted for publication.
  24. Edwards, D.A., Soranno, T.M., Amoruso, M.A., House, R.V., Tummey, A.C., Trimmer, G.W., Thomas, P.T., and P.L. Ribeiro (1994). Screening petrochemicals for contact hypersensitivity potential: a comparison of the murine local lymph node assay with guinea pig and human test data. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 23: 179-187.
  25. Gerberick, G.F., House, R.V., Fletcher, R.E., and C.A. Ryan (1992). Examination of the local lymph node assay for use in contact sensitization risk assessment. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 19: 438-445.
  26. Gerberick, G.F., Cruse, L.W., Miller, C.M., Sikorski, E.E., and G.M. Ridder (1997). Selective modulation of T-cell memort markers CD62L and CD44 on murine draining lymph node cells following allergen and irritant treatment. Toxicol. Appl. Pharm. 146: 1-10.
  27. Hilton, J. and I. Kimber (1995). The murine local lymph node assay. In Methods in Molecular Biology Vol. 43: In Vitro Toxicity Testing Protocols. Eds: S. O'Hare and C.K. Atterwill. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, pp. 227, 235.
  28. Hilton, J., Dearman, R.J., Basketter, Scholes, E.W. and I. Kimber (1996). Experimental assessment of the sensitizing properties of formaldehyde. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 34: 571-578.
  29. Kimber, I., Mitchell, J.A., and A.C. Griffin (1986). Development of a murine local lymph node assay for the determination of sensitizing potential. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 24: 585-586.
  30. Kimber, I., Hilton, J. and C. Weisenberger (1989). The murine local lymph node assay for identification of contact allergens: a preliminary evaluation of in situ measurement of lymphocyte proliferation. Contact Derm. 21: 215-220.
  31. Kimber, I. and C. Weisenberger (1989). A murine local lymph node assay for the identification of contact allergens. Assay development and results of an initial validation study. Arch. Toxicol. 63: 274-282.
  32. Kimber, I. and C. Weisenberger (1989). A modified murine local lymph node assay for the identification of contact allergens. In Current Topics in Contact Dermatitis. Eds. P.J. Frosch, A. Dooms-Goosses, J.M. Lachapelle, R.J.G. Rycroft, and R.F. Scheper. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 592-595.
  33. Kimber, I. (1989). Aspects of the immune response to contact allergens: opportunities for the development and modification of predictive test methods. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 27: 755-762.
  34. Kimber, I., Hilton, J., and P.A. Botham (1990). Identification of contact allergens using the murine local lymph node assay. Comparisons with the Buehler occluded patch test in guinea pigs. J. Appl. Toxicol. 10: 173-180.
  35. Kimber, I., Hilton, J., Botham, P.A., Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Miller, K., Robbins, M.C., Harrison, P.T.C., Gray, T.J.B., and S.J. Waite (1991). The murine locl lymph node assay: results of an interlaboratory trial. Toxicol. Lett. 55: 203-213.
  36. Kimber, I. and C. Weisenberger (1991). Anamnestic responses to contact allergens: applications in the murine local lymph node assay. J. Appl. Toxicol. 11: 129-133.
  37. Kimber, I. and R.J. Dearman (1991). Investigation of lymph node cell proliferation as a possible immunological correlate of contact sensitizing potential. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 29: 125-129.
  38. Kimber, I. and D.A. Basketter (1992). The murine local lymph node assay. A commentary on collaborative studies and new directions. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 30: 165-169.
  39. Kimber, I. (1993). The murine local lymph node assay: Principles and practice. Am. J. Contact Derm. 4: 42-44.
  40. Kimber, I. and Dearman, R.J. (1993). Approaches to the identification and classification of chemical allergens in mice. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Meth. 29: 11-16.
  41. Kimber, I., Dearman, R.J., Scholes, E.W., and D.A. Basketter (1994). The local lymph node assay: developments and applications. Toxicology 93: 13-31.
  42. Kimber, I. and R.J. Dearman (1994). Assessment of contact and respiratory sensitivity in mice. In Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology 2nd Ed. Eds: J.H. Dean, M.I. Luster, A.E. Munson and I. Kimber. Raven Press, New York, pp 721-732.
  43. Kimber, I., Hilton, J., Dearman, R.J., Gerberick, G.F., Ryan, C.A., Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., Ladies, G.S., Loveless, S.E., House, R.V., and A. Guy (1995). An international evaluation of the murine local lymph node assay and comparison of modified procedures. Toxicology 103: 63-73.
  44. Kimber, I. (1995). The local lymph node assay. In Methods in Immunotoxicology. Volume 2. Eds. G.R. Burleson, J.H. Dean, and A.E. Munson. New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 279-290.
  45. Kimber, I. (1996). Mouse predictive tests. In Toxicology of Contact Hypersensitivity. Eds. I. Kimber and T. Maurer. London: Taylor and Francis, pp. 127-139.
  46. Kimber, I. (1996). The local lymph node assay. In Dermatotoxicology 5th Ed. Eds. F.N. Marzulli and H.I. Maibach. Washington D.C.: Taylor and Francis, pp. 469-475.
  47. Kimber, I. (1997). The local lymph node assay and other approaches to the evaluation of skin sensitizing potential. In Advances in Animal Alternatives for Safety and Efficacy Testing. Eds. H. Salem and S.A. Katz. Washington D.C.: Taylor and Francis, pp. 49-54.
  48. Kimber, I. and D.A. Basketter (1997). Contact sensitization: a new approach to risk assessment. Human and Exological Risk Assessment 3: 385-395.
  49. Kimber, I., Hilton, J., Dearman, R.J., Gerberick, G.F., Ryan, C.A., Basketter, D.A., Lea, L., House, R.V., Ladies, G.S., Loveless, S.E., and K.L. Hastings. Assessment of the skin sensitization potential of topical medicaments using the local lymph node assay: an inter-laboratory exercise. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. Accepted for publication.
  50. Kimber, I. The local lymph node assay. Hazard and Risk Assessment. In Dermatotoxicology Methods. Eds. F.N. Marzulli and H.I. Maibach. Accepted for publication.
  51. Ladies, G.S., Smith, C., Heaps, K., and S.E. Loveless (1995). Comparison of 125-Iododeoxyuridine (125IUdR) and [3H]thymidine ([3H]TdR) for assessing cell proliferation in the murine local lymph node assay. Toxicol. Meth. 5: 143-152.
  52. Loveless, S.E., Ladies, G.S., Gerberick, G.F., Ryan, C.A., Basketter, D.A., Scholes, E.W., House, R.V., Hilton, J., Dearman, R.J., and I. Kimber (1996). Further evaluation of the local lymph node assay in the final phase of an international collaborative trial. Toxicology 108: 141-152.
  53. Maurer, T. and I. Kimber (1991). Draining lymph node activation in guinea pigs: comparisons with the murine local lymph node assay. Toxicology 69: 202-218.
  54. Montelius, J., Wahlkvist, H., Boman, A., Fernstrom, P., Grabergs, L., and J.E. Wahlberg (1994). Experience with the murine local lymph node assay: inability to discriminate between allergens and irritants. Acta Derm. Venerol. Stockholm 74: 22-27.
  55. Potter, D.W. and G.A. Hazelton (1995). Evaluation of auricular lymph node cell proliferation in isothiazolone-treated mice. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 24: 165-172.
  56. Robinson, M.K. and T.J. Sozeri (1990). Immunosuppressive effects of clonidine on the induction of contact sensitization in the Balb/c mouse. J. Invest. Dermatol. 95: 587-591.
  57. Robinson, M.K. and C.A. Cruze (1996). Preclinical skin sensitization testing of antihistamines: guinea pig and local lymph node assay responses. Fd. Chem. Toxic. 34: 495-506.
  58. Sailstad, D.M., Krishnan, S.D., Tepper, J.S., Doerfler, D.L., and M.J. Selgrade (1995). Dietary vitamin A enhances sensitivity of the local lymph node assay. Toxicology 96: 157-163.
  59. Scholes, E.W., Basketter, D.A., Lovell, W.W., Saril, A.E., and R.U. Pendington (1992). The identification of photoallergic potential in the local lymph node assay. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 8: 249-254.
  60. Scholes, E.W., Basketter, D.A., Saril, A.E., Kimber, I., Evans, C.D., Miller, K., Robbins, M.C., Harrison, P.T.C., and S.J. Waite (1992). The local lymph node assay: results of a final interlaboratory validation under field conditions. J. Appl. Toxicol. 12: 217-222.
  61. Sikorski, E.E., Gerberick, G.F., Ryan, C.A., Miller, C.M., and G.M. Ridder (1996). Phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations in lymph nodes draining the ear following exposure to contact allergens and irritants. Fund. and Appl. Toxicol. 34: 25-35.

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